Death Sentence - Anti-Apartheid (1986)
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Death Sentence - Anti-Apartheid (1986)
Generally speaking, athletes with solid muscle maturity will have a harder, more grainy look to their physique, with deeper striations, more apparent dryness, and potentially sharper or more clearly defined angles.
Things that pass as sage advice from coach to athlete across generations may not stand up to scientific scrutiny. As a concept, muscle maturity is hard to pin down and study in a laboratory setting. Research on the idea in actual bodybuilders is sparse to nonexistent.
Fortunately, the effects of exercise (specifically weight lifting) on your muscles is far more clear. Anyone who has hit the iron and maintained a proper diet long enough will notice that their body grows and responds in kind.
Notably, training also affects your muscle tone. (4) While tone has the colloquial definition of shaping or defining a tissue in fitness circles, its scientific definition refers to the level of resting tension or tightness in a tissue. Your muscles do become more taut as you acclimate to regular lifting.
However, fat is also stored (in much smaller quantities) within your muscle tissue. Engaging in an effective hypocaloric diet will reduce your fat stores throughout your body, helping to define and emphasize your muscles themselves.
However, the cells in our bones, muscles and connective tissues are always turning over as they mature, die, and are replaced with new cells. As such, our muscles are living, dynamic structures that mature and evolve with training over time.
Muscle maturity does not refer to your muscular build when you finish puberty and have grown into your adult build. Rather, muscle maturity occurs much later on in adulthood as a product of years of strength training.
Even once you reach muscle maturity, your individual muscle fibers are still in a dynamic state of repairing and renewing, but your muscles have basically reached peak form and strength, having adapted and developed to their maximum capacity after years of training.
Moreover, meat from younger animals (veal vs. beef or lamb vs. mutton, for example) tends to be more tender and fattier than meat from mature animals. This is due to a lower muscle density and a higher percentage of intramuscular fat.
When you achieve muscle maturity, your muscles are compact, firm, and formed from toughened muscle fibers with thickened myofibrils (the structural proteins that compose the muscle fibers) at the microscopic level.
Most bodybuilding experts say that most people achieve muscle maturity somewhere between the ages of 25-40 years old, depending on how old you were when you first started serious or formal strength training.
Heavier loads trigger muscle hypertrophy, which refers to muscle building or the increase in muscle mass triggered by a cascade of various hormones and RNA factors that control protein synthesis. Through hypertrophy, your muscle fibers get bigger, stronger, and denser.
Along with carbohydrates and fat, protein provides energy (4 kcals per gram), but it also aids in muscle recovery after strength training, helping heal any microscopic damage and building new muscle fibers to adapt to your training loads.
Considerable knowledge regarding skeletal muscle physiology and disease has been gleaned from cultured myoblastic cell lines or isolated primary myoblasts. Such muscle cultures can be induced to differentiate into multinucleated myotubes that become striated. However they in general do not fully mature and therefore do not model mature muscle. Contrastingly, fresh and cultured dissociated adult mouse flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) myofibers have been studied for many years. We aimed to investigate the possibility of using the FDB myofiber culture system for drug screening and thus long-term cultures of enzymatically dissociated FDB myofibers were established in 96-well plates. Ca2+ handling experiments were used to investigate the functional state of the myofibers. Imaging of intracellular Ca2+ during electric field stimulation revealed that calcium handling was maintained throughout the culture period of at least 8 days. Western blot and immunostaining analysis showed that the FDB cultures maintained expression of mature proteins throughout the culture period, including alpha-sarcoglycan, dystrophin, fast myosin heavy chain and skeletal muscle alpha-actin. The high levels of the fetal proteins cardiac alpha-actin and utrophin, seen in cultured C2C12 myotubes, were absent in the FDB cultures. The expression of developmentally mature proteins and the absence of fetal proteins, in addition to the maintenance of normal calcium handling, highlights the FDB culture system as a more mature and perhaps more relevant culture system for the study of adult skeletal muscle function. Moreover, it may be a useful system for screening therapeutic agents for the treatment of skeletal muscle disorders.
There is something out there that you may have heard of called muscle maturity. It is your secret weapon and hidden gem to looking your best. This notion of muscle maturity serves even more true with people in fitness and bodybuilding. Through years of physical activity and work, the muscles mature and are able to contract more intensely. This then leads to deeper striations and thicker more dense fibers. The skin thins as well as people age, so the muscles are therefore revealed even more (along with some vascularity).
A person in high school could weigh 180 pounds and be 8% body fat. This would be an ideal look for most people in their 30s, 40s, and even 50s. Already marking it up for something that will never be, many people as they age just go to the weight room and lift to get bigger muscles and try to maintain as much youth as possible through achieving a sense of size. However, if a person was to take advantage of their muscle maturity by being active, eating healthy, and hitting the weight room, they would see that the 180-pound, 8% body fat frame would look much better on them now than it ever did in high school. This is because the muscles look more pleasing and aesthetic due to their maturity.
Though in the past believed to be a rare phenomenon, endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation has been described with increasing frequency in recent years. It is believed to be important in embryonic vascular development, yet less is known regarding its role in the adult vasculature. Using FACS and immunomagnetic (Dynabeads) purification techniques (based on uptake of DiI-acetylated low-density lipoproteins and/or PECAM-1 expression) and double-label indirect immunostaining (for endothelial and smooth muscle [SM] markers), we demonstrate that mature bovine vascular endothelium contains cells of an endothelial phenotype (defined by VE-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, PECAM-1, and elevated uptake of acetylated low-density lipoproteins) that can undergo endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and further differentiate into SM cells (as defined by expression of alpha-SM-actin, SM22alpha, calponin, and SM-myosin). "Transitional" cells, coexpressing both endothelial markers and alpha-SM-actin, were consistently observed. The percentage of cells capable of endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation within primary endothelial cultures was estimated as 0.01% to 0.03%. Acquisition of a SM phenotype occurred even in the absence of proliferation, in gamma-irradiated (30 Gy) and/or mitomycin C-treated primary cell cultures. Initiation of transdifferentiation correlated with disruption of cell-cell contacts (marked by loss of VE-cadherin expression) within endothelial monolayers, as well as with the action of transforming growth factor-beta(1). In conclusion, our in vitro data show that mature bovine systemic and pulmonary endothelium contains cells that can acquire a SM phenotype via a transdifferentiation process that is transforming growth factor-beta(1)- and cell-cell contact-dependent, but proliferation-independent.
The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans states that aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activities provide substantial health benefits for adults (1). To assess participation in aerobic physical and muscle-strengthening activities among adults in the United States, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included new questions in 2011.* CDC analyzed the 2011 BRFSS survey data for U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) and found that the self-reported activities of 20.6% of adult respondents met both aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines. Among U.S. states and DC, the prevalence of adults meeting both aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines ranged from 12.7% to 27.3%. Nationwide, 51.6% of U.S. adults met the aerobic activity guideline, and 29.3% met the muscle-strengthening guideline. State public health officials can use these data to establish new baselines for measuring progress toward meeting the physical activity guidelines.
The assessment of the aerobic activity guideline excluded 39,879 respondents because of missing information, leaving 458,088 usable responses, and the assessment of the muscle-strengthening guideline excluded 28,655 respondents for the same reason, leaving 469,312 usable responses. The assessment of the proportions of persons meeting both the aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines excluded 44,246 respondents with missing physical activity data, leaving 453,721 usable responses. Persons with missing educational attainment or body mass index (BMI) data were excluded from education and BMI analyses.
Among the 50 states and DC, the prevalence of adults meeting both aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines ranged from 12.7% in West Virginia and Tennessee to 27.3% in Colorado (Table 2, Figure). Compared with the South and Midwest, states in the West (23.5%) and Northeast (21.3%) had the highest proportion of adults who met both aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines (p
Nationwide, 51.6% met the aerobic activity guideline and 29.3% of U.S. adults met the muscle-strengthening guideline (Table 1). Prevalence patterns by sex, education, and BMI for meeting the aerobic activity guideline and the muscle-strengthening guideline were similar to patterns observed for adults who met both the aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines combined. Among the 50 states and DC, the prevalence of meeting the aerobic activity guideline ranged from 39.0% in Tennessee to 61.8% in Colorado and for meeting the muscle-strengthening guideline ranged from 20.2% in West Virginia to 36.1% in DC (Table 2). 59ce067264