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Grantey Group

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Adrian Foster
Adrian Foster

Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology PDF


Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome newly affects 1-3 per 100,000 children per year. Approximately 85% of cases show complete remission of proteinuria following glucocorticoid treatment. Patients who do not achieve complete remission within 4-6 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment have steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). In 10-30% of steroid-resistant patients, mutations in podocyte-associated genes can be detected, whereas an undefined circulating factor of immune origin is assumed in the remaining ones. Diagnosis and management of SRNS is a great challenge due to its heterogeneous etiology, frequent lack of remission by further immunosuppressive treatment, and severe complications including the development of end-stage kidney disease and recurrence after renal transplantation. A team of experts including pediatric nephrologists and renal geneticists from the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (IPNA), a renal pathologist, and an adult nephrologist have now developed comprehensive clinical practice recommendations on the diagnosis and management of SRNS in children. The team performed a systematic literature review on 9 clinically relevant PICO (Patient or Population covered, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions, formulated recommendations and formally graded them at a consensus meeting, with input from patient representatives and a dietician acting as external advisors and a voting panel of pediatric nephrologists. Research recommendations are also given.




Comprehensive Clinical Nephrology PDF



N2 - Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome newly affects 1-3 per 100,000 children per year. Approximately 85% of cases show complete remission of proteinuria following glucocorticoid treatment. Patients who do not achieve complete remission within 4-6 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment have steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). In 10-30% of steroid-resistant patients, mutations in podocyte-associated genes can be detected, whereas an undefined circulating factor of immune origin is assumed in the remaining ones. Diagnosis and management of SRNS is a great challenge due to its heterogeneous etiology, frequent lack of remission by further immunosuppressive treatment, and severe complications including the development of end-stage kidney disease and recurrence after renal transplantation. A team of experts including pediatric nephrologists and renal geneticists from the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (IPNA), a renal pathologist, and an adult nephrologist have now developed comprehensive clinical practice recommendations on the diagnosis and management of SRNS in children. The team performed a systematic literature review on 9 clinically relevant PICO (Patient or Population covered, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions, formulated recommendations and formally graded them at a consensus meeting, with input from patient representatives and a dietician acting as external advisors and a voting panel of pediatric nephrologists. Research recommendations are also given.


AB - Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome newly affects 1-3 per 100,000 children per year. Approximately 85% of cases show complete remission of proteinuria following glucocorticoid treatment. Patients who do not achieve complete remission within 4-6 weeks of glucocorticoid treatment have steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). In 10-30% of steroid-resistant patients, mutations in podocyte-associated genes can be detected, whereas an undefined circulating factor of immune origin is assumed in the remaining ones. Diagnosis and management of SRNS is a great challenge due to its heterogeneous etiology, frequent lack of remission by further immunosuppressive treatment, and severe complications including the development of end-stage kidney disease and recurrence after renal transplantation. A team of experts including pediatric nephrologists and renal geneticists from the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (IPNA), a renal pathologist, and an adult nephrologist have now developed comprehensive clinical practice recommendations on the diagnosis and management of SRNS in children. The team performed a systematic literature review on 9 clinically relevant PICO (Patient or Population covered, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome) questions, formulated recommendations and formally graded them at a consensus meeting, with input from patient representatives and a dietician acting as external advisors and a voting panel of pediatric nephrologists. Research recommendations are also given.


Although some medium nerve conduction indices had not got the normal limit yet, all of them were higher than the baseline. Therefore, our research showed that a combination of HD with HDF-Online might improve some nerve conduction indices, as well as improved the clinical symptoms which involved in peripheral neuropathy in standard HD patients. 041b061a72


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  • Riva Motwani
    Riva Motwani
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    Joohnn Brittoo
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    Elena Ivan
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