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Related Articles: "the-forest"

Related Articles: "the-forest" --->

To address infrastructure-related drivers of deforestation, we seek to influence the financing of roads, mines, and other infrastructure in the developing world, largely by ensuring that the value of forests are factored into decisions about where to create or expand infrastructure.

Phytoncides are olfaction-related elements of the forest environment. Smell has commonly been considered to be associated with instinct, emotion, and preference, and to have a greater influence on physiological change than stimuli for other senses [23].

Dayawansa et al. [29] tested the effects of cedrol, which is a compound that occurs in cedar extract, on cardiovascular and respiratory functions and observed that cederol inhalation significantly decreased the heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic pressure, and respiratory frequency. The authors assumed that cedrol inhalation reduced respiratory frequency, which in turn, decreased the blood pressure via an enhancement of the baroreceptor sensitivity that has been reported to be inversely related to sympathetic activity.

Forests are fundamental to the culture and livelihood of indigenous people groups that live in and depend on forests,[59] many of which have been removed from and denied access to the lands on which they lived as part of global colonialism. Indigenous lands contain 36% or more of intact forest worldwide, host more biodiversity, and experience less deforestation.[60][61][62] Indigenous activists have argued that degradation of forests and indigenous peoples' marginalization and land dispossession are interconnected.[63][64] Other concerns among indigenous peoples include lack of Indigenous involvement in forest management and loss of knowledge related for the forest ecosystem.[65] Since 2002, the amount of land that is legally owned by or designated for indigenous peoples has broadly increased, but land acquisition in lower-income countries by multinational corporations, often with little or no consultation of indigenous peoples, has also increased.[66] Research in the Amazon rainforest suggests that indigenous methods of agroforestry form reservoirs of biodiversity.[67] In the U.S. state of Wisconsin, forests managed by indigenous people have more plant diversity, fewer invasive species, higher tree regeneration rates, and higher volume of trees.[68]

It would be good if there was data available that would capture these additional aspects. We manage to capture some of these differences in carbon in our related article on deforestation emissions embedded in trade. Without reliable metrics that capture all of these differences, we will have to stick with total changes in forest area for now. But we should keep these important aspects in mind when comparing forest losses and gains.

Ellsworth, D.S., & Reich, P.B. (1993). Canopy structure and vertical patterns of photosynthesisand related leaf traits in a deciduous forest.Oecologia 96,169-178. Retrieved from -y-Reich-1993.pdf

Spending time around trees and looking at trees reduces stress, lowers blood pressure and improves mood. Numerous studies show that both exercising in forests and simply sitting looking at trees reduce blood pressure as well as the stress-related hormones cortisol and adrenaline. Looking at pictures of trees has a similar, but less dramatic, effect. Studies examining the same activities in urban, unplanted areas showed no reduction of stress-related effects. Using the Profile of Mood States test, researchers found that forest bathing trips significantly decreased the scores for anxiety, depression, anger, confusion and fatigue. And because stress inhibits the immune system, the stress-reduction benefits of forests are further magnified.

In children, attention fatigue causes an inability to pay attention and control impulses. The part of the brain affected by attention fatigue (right prefrontal cortex) is also involved in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Studies show that children who spend time in natural outdoor environments have a reduction in attention fatigue and children diagnosed with ADHD show a reduction in related symptoms. Researchers are investigating the use of natural outdoor environments to supplement current approaches to managing ADHD. Such an approach has the advantages of being widely accessible, inexpensive and free of side effects.

The invasion of the emerald ash borer, or EAB, (Agrilus planipennis) since 2002 has provided an unfortunate opportunity to look at the effect of tree-loss on human health. EAB is a non-native, wood-boring beetle that kills all species of ash (Fraxinus) trees within three years after infestation. In some communities, entire streets lined with ash were left barren after the beetle arrived in their neighborhood. A study looked at human deaths related to heart and lung disease in areas affected by EAB infestations. It found that across 15 states, EAB was associated with an additional 6,113 deaths related to lung disease and 15,080 heart-disease-related deaths.

Supervised forest and range conservation work of the CivilianConservation Corps, 1933-42. Administered war-related programs,1942-45. Administered, 1934-42, the Prairie States Forestry("Shelterbelt") Project, established under the EmergencyAppropriation Act (48 Stat. 1021), June 19, 1934. "Shelterbelt" Project transferred to Soil Conservation Service, effective July1, 1942, by Secretary's memorandum, June 30, 1942.

Textual Records: Letters sent, 1886-99, and received, 1888-99, bythe Division of Forestry. General correspondence, 1898-1908.Records of the Office of the Forester, 1908-35, and successorOffice of the Chief of the Forest Service, 1935-48. Letters sentby the Office of the Associate Forester, 1907-8. Selected records relating to the administration of ForesterGifford Pinchot, 1905-10. Circulars and orders, 1903-7.Directives ("Forest Service Manual"), 1937-59. Records of theOffice of the Forester and the office of Region 6 (Portland, OR)relating to the Ballinger-Pinchot controversy over closingcertain national forest sites and administration of Alaska coalfields, 1904-10. Records of Forester Henry S. Graves, 1911, andAssistant Chief of the Forest Service Earl W. Loveridge, 1913-54. Speeches and related records of Chief Edward P. Cliff, 1962-70. Office files of Forest Service Chief John R. McGuire, 1971-79. Records relating to speeches, meetings, and activities of Chief R. Maxwell Peterson, 1949-87 (bulk 1979-86), and Chief F. Dale Robertson, 1987-88.

Maps: National forests, 1911-60 (2,050 items).Transportation plans and systems on Forest Service lands, 1962(592 items). Forest atlases, 1908-25 (3,730 items). Project filesof the Drafting and Atlas Section, 1903-60 (2,626 items). ForestService regions, 1911-40 (44 items). Ranger districts, purchaseunits, and topographic quadrangles, 1935-47 (219 items). Fire-control and related maps, 1925-40 (23 items). Road development,1917, and roadless areas, 1926, in national forests (74 items).Miscellaneous maps, 1907-49 (31 items). See also 95.12.

History: Established in 1939 to consolidate functions relating toflood control, soil erosion prevention, and related aspects ofwatershed management. Redesignated Watershed and MineralsManagement Staff, 1974, and Watershed and Minerals AreaManagement Staff, 1975. Redesignated Watershed Management Staffupon establishment of separate Minerals and Geology Staff, 1977.Redesignated Watershed and Air Management Staff, 1980.

Related Records: The series of deeds and related records, 1913-50, formerly in the custody of the National Archives and carriedas entry 81 of PI 18 (Revised), was returned to the ForestService on May 1, 1984.

Textual Records: Annual progress reports, 1918-22. Entomologicalstudies, 1946-53. Dendroctonus beetle studies, 1915-52. Reports,1912-53. Survey reports and related correspondence, 1928-52.

Textual Records (in Denver): Records on land classification,boundaries, administrative sites, land use planning (primarilyfor land in Colorado), and related records, 1920-53.Correspondence and reports evaluating CCC programs in Colorado,1933-42. Historical files on national forests in CO, NE, and WY,1900-82. Range allotment management files for Arapahoe andRoosevelt National Forests, 1910-54.

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records relating to firecontrol, forest insect and disease control, forest products, landuse, wildlife, and related research, 1960-71. Case files relatingto the use of Forest Service lands and resources by non-ForestService organizations and individuals, 1937-62. Records relatingto allotment, grazing, and range management, 1915-58.

Textual Records (in San Francisco): Records relating to timbersales, reforestation, fire control, wildlife, and relatedresearch, 1959-62. Case files relating to the use of ForestService lands and resources by non-Forest Service organizationsand individuals, 1959-65.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is extremely heterogenous in its effects on airway remodeling. Parsing the complex and interrelated morphologic changes and understanding their contribution to disease severity has posed a significant challenge to the field. In the current issue of the JCI, Bodduluri et al. measured the complex effects of COPD on the airway tree using airway fractal dimension (AFD) on computerized tomography in a large cohort of smokers with and without COPD. They found that lower AFD was independently associated with disease severity and mortality in COPD. This work highlights AFD as a noninvasive approach to analyze complex changes in airway geometry.

We conclude that the FRL exercise was challenging but improved the modelling capacity and data availability at country scale. The present study contributes to increase the transparency of the implementation of forest-related EU policies and provides evidence-based support to future policy development. 59ce067264


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